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Program Archives - 2003

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29 Dec 030802 Anthony Arnove and Janinne Jackson - American Empire and Corporate Media

Hermann Goering, second in command to Hitler said, "Naturally, the common people don't want war. It is the leaders of the country who determine policy, and it is always a simple matter to drag the people along. The people can always be brought to the bidding of the leaders. That is easy. All you have to do is tell them they are being attacked and denounce the pacifists for lack of patriotism and exposing the country to danger. It works the same in any country." Today we see the patterns that Goering described replicated in the US invasion of Iraq and the war on terrorism. Corporate media have been instrumental in manufacturing consent for war. When it comes to the invasion of Iraq, US public opinion is radically divergent from the rest of the world. MIT professor Noam Chomsky says that this can on be explained by a massive propaganda campaign.

Anthony Arnove is editor of international bestseller Iraq Under Siege. He lectures frequently on US foreign policy and the Middle East.

Janine Jackson is Program Director at Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting (FAIR), the New York-based media watchgroup. She is also co-host of Counterspin, FAIR's weekly radio program.

22 Dec 031302 Kathy Kelly - Iraq: Eyewitness to War

US diplomacy has evolved into, 'You do what we say, or else'. Gung-ho machismo is the order of the day. Bush intones, "Bring 'em on." and "There will be no retreat." The president announces that by invading and occupying Iraq the world is safer. Can anyone believe this? Sure. If you only watch corporate TV news! Why didn't the US allow UN weapons inspectors to do their job? It's now apparent why the Bush administration was in such a hurry to attack Iraq. Virtually none of its lurid pre-war allegations have traction. What did Iraq have to do with September 11th or Al Qaeda? Scud missiles? Uranium purchases? Mobile weapons labs? Nada. Nothing.

What was it like on the ground in Iraq as it was under US assault? Kathy Kelly was there. She is a three-time nominee for the Nobel Peace Prize. She helped start Voices in the Wilderness, the Chicago-based humanitarian organisation that delivered medical supplies and toys to Iraq. She has been to Iraq more than twenty times.

15 Dec 031301** Nancy Lessin and Charlie Richardson - Bring Them Home

During the build up to the latest war on Iraq we heard speeches from our leaders on both sides of the Pacific telling us how brave our military men and women were. They reminded us how these individuals and their families would bear the burden of the awful war to come. Yet what they didn't tell us, or perhaps more correctly made sure was hidden from us, was their own avoidance of military service. For instance, when asked about why he did not serve in the Vietnam war Dick Cheney, Vice President of the US and former CEO of Halliburton replied that he "had other priorities" at that time. US President Bush played along with the media pantomime when he supposedly flew a jet fighter to an aircraft carrier to mark the end of the war in May 2003. Unfortunately Bush never turned up when he was drafted to the National Guard during the Vietnam war. Similarly, John Howard and Tony Blair never served a day of military duty. Nor Paul Wolfowitz or Richard Perle or most of the other leading hawks in both the Australian and US governments.

Military Families Speak Out was founded by Nancy Lessin and Charlie Richardson in November 2002. Its membership consists of mothers and fathers, spouses or other relatives of serving or deceased military personnel. Their website MFSO.org contains testimonies from these families condemning the senselessness of the current Middle East aggression and calls for the US government to bring the loved ones home. Nancy and Charlie spoke at the Migrant Resource Centre in Morwell on November 2nd 2003. (**CD only)

8 Dec 031201 Howard Zinn - Confronting Government Lies

Humpty Dumpty, that great social philosopher, told Alice in a scornful tone, "When I use a word it means just what I choose it to mean-neither more nor less." Alice replied, "The question is whether you can make words mean so many different things." To which Humpty Dumpty responded, "The question is to be master-that's all." To cover their rears and to promote their agendas, leaders of governments lie. JFK, LBJ, Nixon, Reagan, Clinton. Dubya continues the tradition. To persuade the American people into believing that Iraq was an imminent threat to their security Bush and his cohorts disseminated a series of lies. The embedded corporate media were only too willing to go along.

Howard Zinn, professor emeritus at Boston University, is perhaps this country's premier radical historian. During World War II, he saw combat duty as an air force bombardier. After the war, he went to Columbia University on the GI Bill. He was an active figure in the civil rights and anti-Vietnam War movements. His masterpiece, A People's History of the United States continues to sell in huge numbers. His other books include Terrorism and War, Failure to Quit and The Future of History.

1 Dec 031106 Noam Chomsky - On Imperialism

"Our fingers will be in every pie," declared Sen. Robert Taft. "Our frontiers today are on every continent," announced JFK. And indeed it has come to pass. The US is an imperialist state. In mainstream media and scholarship it has been rare to find the noun imperialism preceded by the adjective American. With a brazenness that would make Roman emperors blush, the US asserts its interests and borders everywhere. The cover for aggression is cloaked in the lofty rhetoric of democracy, nation building and humanitarian intervention. Alan Murray, CNBC Washington Bureau Chief wrote in the Wall Street Journal, "We are all, it seems, imperialists now." He might be speaking for the elites that run America not for voices of conscience like Noam Chomsky. Join David Barsamian as he talks with Noam Chomsky in the latest in a series of interviews recorded on Sept 11, 2003.

Noam Chomsky, MIT professor, in addition to being a pioneer in linguistics, is internationally renowned for his scholarship and activism on US foreign policy and the role of the media in manufacturing consent. The New York Times calls him "An exploder of received truths. His books inlcude Power and Terror and Middle East Illusions.

24 Nov 021102 Edward Said - A Palestinian Perspective on the Conflict with Israel

The Palestinian viewpoint is rarely heard in the mainstream media and when it is, like on The O'Reilly Factor or Hardball, it is interrupted and cut off. Palestinians have been demonised and have become virtually synonymous with terrorist. They simply lust for the blood of innocents. There is little or no rational discourse. Context and background are reduced to formulaic constructions. That they have been living under the longest military occupation in modern times is not even mentioned. The great Uruguayan writer and journalist Eduardo Galeano says, "Palestinians have been damned to play the scapegoat for European anti-Semitism and to pay with their land and blood for the holocaust they did not commit".

Edward Said, internationally renowned Columbia University professor, practically invented the field of post-colonial studies. His great work, Orientalism has been translated into many languages and is widely used in colleges and universities. The New York Times called him, "one of the most influential literary and cultural critics in the world." As one of the few advocates for Palestinian rights in the US, he was the target of vilification, death threats and vandalism. The Economist said he "repudiated terrorism in all its forms and was a passionate, eloquent and persistent advocate for justice for the dispossessed Palestinians." He was a trenchant critic not just of Israeli policies, but also of Arafat, the corrupt coterie around him and the despotic Arab regimes. He felt strongly that intellectuals had a special responsibility to speak out against injustice, challenge power, confront hegemonic thinking and provide alternatives. His memoir Out of Place won the New Yorker Book of the Year Award. Edward Said died in New York on September 25, 2003.

17 Nov 011001 Edward Said - Origins of Terrorism

The horrendous terrorist attacks on New York and Washington stunned the country and the world. The images from September 11 are etched in our memories forever. Now, slowly the collective psyche is healing and questions are being asked. What would prompt people to inflict such terrible carnage and in the process take their own lives? Do they, as the White House and the media repeat in tandem, simply 'hate' America? Or were there deeper reasons connected to US alliances and policies? It is clear that a more nuanced understanding, background and context are needed.

Edward Said, internationally renowned Columbia University professor, practically invented the field of post-colonial studies. His great work, Orientalism has been translated into many languages and is widely used in colleges and universities. The New York Times called him, "one of the most influential literary and cultural critics in the world." As one of the few advocates for Palestinian rights in the US, he was the target of vilification, death threats and vandalism. The Economist said he "repudiated terrorism in all its forms and was a passionate, eloquent and persistent advocate for justice for the dispossessed Palestinians." He was a trenchant critic not just of Israeli policies, but also of Arafat, the corrupt coterie around him and the despotic Arab regimes. He felt strongly that intellectuals had a special responsibility to speak out against injustice, challenge power, confront hegemonic thinking and provide alternatives. His memoir Out of Place won the New Yorker Book of the Year Award. Edward Said died in New York on September 25, 2003.

10 Nov 000101 Edward Said - Unresolved Geographies, Embattled Landscapes

Edward Said, internationally renowned Columbia University professor, practically invented the field of post-colonial studies. His great work, Orientalism has been translated into many languages and is widely used in colleges and universities. The New York Times called him, "one of the most influential literary and cultural critics in the world." As one of the few advocates for Palestinian rights in the US, he was the target of vilification, death threats and vandalism. The Economist said he "repudiated terrorism in all its forms and was a passionate, eloquent and persistent advocate for justice for the dispossessed Palestinians." He was a trenchant critic not just of Israeli policies, but also of Arafat, the corrupt coterie around him and the despotic Arab regimes. He felt strongly that intellectuals had a special responsibility to speak out against injustice, challenge power, confront hegemonic thinking and provide alternatives. His memoir Out of Place won the New Yorker Book of the Year Award. Edward Said died in New York on September 25, 2003.

3 Nov 981001 Edward Said - The Palestinian Future

September 13 1998 marked the fifth anniversary of the Oslo Accords. Hardly anyone noticed. Peace still seems distant. Fifty years after Israel's founding, the status of the Palestinians remains unclear. What is the Palestinian future?

Edward Said, internationally renowned Columbia University professor, practically invented the field of post-colonial studies. His great work, Orientalism has been translated into many languages and is widely used in colleges and universities. The New York Times called him, "one of the most influential literary and cultural critics in the world." As one of the few advocates for Palestinian rights in the US, he was the target of vilification, death threats and vandalism. The Economist said he "repudiated terrorism in all its forms and was a passionate, eloquent and persistent advocate for justice for the dispossessed Palestinians." He was a trenchant critic not just of Israeli policies, but also of Arafat, the corrupt coterie around him and the despotic Arab regimes. He felt strongly that intellectuals had a special responsibility to speak out against injustice, challenge power, confront hegemonic thinking and provide alternatives. His memoir Out of Place won the New Yorker Book of the Year Award. Edward Said died in New York on September 25, 2003.

27 Oct 030503 Elaine Brown - Demonising Race

Ask people about racism in the US and many of its citizens will say it's a thing of the past. People of colour have equal opportunity and, if anything, there is now reverse discrimination. But how do we explain the marked difference in college attendance between whites and non-whites? The extremely disproportionate rates of incarceration of black men? Racial profiling by law enforcement? Labelling young males in our ghettos as superpredators? And the acceptance of the so-called fact that 'they' are just different than the majority 'we'. Easy to justify when speaking from a position of privilege, be it skin colour, gender or economic status. Elaine Brown has found a disturbingly insidious nature to racism today. A racism whereby middle class whites and blacks alike are quick to condemn an accused man whose only crimes may be that he's poor and not white.

Elaine Brown is former chairperson of The Black Panther Party. She is on the executive board of Mothers Advocating Juvenile Justice and lectures at colleges and universities across the US. She is author of two books, her memoir, A Taste of Power, and The Condemnation of Little B.

20 Oct 030502 Molly Ivins - Politics and the Art of Deception

Molly Ivins is a keen and trenchant observer of the American political scene. Her razor-sharp wit and pen spare no one. Based in Austin, Texas, she is a nationally syndicated columnist. Her book Molly Ivins Can't Say That, Can She? was a bestseller. She is the author of Nothing But Good Times Ahead.

13 Oct 031103 Kevin Danaher - Global Health or Global Wealth?

There's one global economic model that creates wealth for the few, at the expense of the many. In that model, a country's resources and the labor of its people exist to deliver products with the lowest possible cost and the highest possible profit. That profit goes into the pockets of corporate executives and shareholders. The people and the planet are secondary considerations. But there is another model, where wealth is shared and where economic decisions are based on fairness and sustainability. Successful grassroots efforts are under way around the globe to make this vision a reality.

Kevin Danaher is co-founder and public education director of Global Exchange. The San Francisco-based non-profit led the campaign that exposed Nike's use of sweatshop labor. Global Exchange promotes sustainable, citizen-oriented efforts in international trade. Kevin Danaher is the author of Globalise This! and Insurrection.

6 Oct 031102 Chris Hedges - War As An Addiction

War is an emotionally intense and exhilarating experience. From ancient times war and the warrior have been celebrated. The adrenalin rushes of combat, the parades, the medals and the adulation are all part of the allure of war. It is imbued with ideas of nobility, selflessness and glory. General George Patton, one of America's most famous warriors said, "Compared to war all other forms of human endeavour shrink to insignificance. God, I do love it so." War is an elixir that gives some who wage it purpose and resolve. If one is not careful, as Chris Hedges warns, it can become addictive.

Chris Hedges joined The New York Times in 1990. Before that he reported for The Dallas Morning News, The Christian Science Monitor and National Public Radio. He has seen war up close in the Balkans, the Middle East and Central America. His book War is a Force that Gives Us Meaning received the 2003 Overseas Press Club award. The Los Angeles Times calls it, "A powerful message to people contemplating the escalation of the "war against terrorism."

29 Sep 030402 Howard Zinn - Just and Unjust Wars

Howard Zinn, professor emeritus of history at Boston University, is perhaps this country's premier radical historian. His masterpiece, A People's History of the United States, continues to sell in huge numbers. Among the many honours he has received are the Eugene Debs Award and the Upton Sinclair Award. His play Marx in Soho is being widely performed. He is also the author of Failure to Quit and The Future of History.

22 Sep NA** The Freedom Archives - Chile: Promise of Freedom

Thirty years ago this month, the Chilean military, backed by the CIA, with the full knowledge of then Secretary of State Henry Kissinger and President Richard Nixon, crushed the democratically elected government of Salvador Allende. This programs asks the question, why is this history relevant today?

Originally produced as two 28 minute programs, Alternative Radio (Aust) has gained permission from the producers to distribute this revealing program exclusively to Community Radio stations throughout Australia. This program features Isabel Allende, Ariel Dorfman and others with historic sound recordings and music.

Please note this program is not available for sale or multiple replays. Please visit the Freedom Archives at www.freedomarchives.org for more information. (**CD only)

15 Sep 011002 Christopher Hitchens - The Case of Henry Kissinger

Henry Kissinger beware! With the detention of former Chilean President Augusto Pinochet and the arrest of Yugoslavia's Slobodan Milosovic, no longer can tyrants hide behind the defence of sovereign immunity for their crimes against humanity. While some still consider Henry Kissinger one of the US's most influential international political power brokers, as Secretary of State and National Security Adviser, he played a roll in numerous heinous crimes. He helped incite and enable the 1973 genocide in East Timor. He deliberately colluded in mass murder and assassination in Bangladesh. He also oversaw the mass killing of civilian populations in Indochina during the Vietnam War. And those are just some of the crimes that could be listed on any indictment against Kissinger. Many of his partners in crime are now in jail, or are awaiting trial. There is now no reason why a warrant for Kissinger's arrest may not be issued in any one of numerous legal jurisdictions. It's more a question of who will take the stand. Whoever does take on this case should recruit Christopher Hitchens to help lead their investigation.

Christopher Hitchens is a columnist for Vanity Fair and The Nation. He's the author of many books including No One Left to Lie To, Unacknowledged Legislation. His book, The Trial of Henry Kissinger, presents the case for charging Kissinger with a long list of crimes against humanity.

8 Sep 031101** Kee Dewdney - Ghost Riders in the Sky: An Alternative 9-11 Scenario

Writing in the 1960s, French philosopher Guy Debord wrote "the spectacle is the self-portrait of power in the age of power's totalitarian rule over the conditions of existence." In an age where it is argued signs and symbols have replaced reality and the spectacle is sought more than substance, have we been highjacked by the image-makers for purposes more sinister than previously conceived? The intensity, horror and spectacle of the events of September the 11th 2001 shook the US people to their core and the effects of those events have spread out to engulf the world. From that day on there has been a sense of unbelief in the US that 'Fortress America' could be breached and that on home soil terrorism, viewed by Americans as happening only in other countries, could happen to them. But what if? What if the events that day were not as they seem? What if those events were just another step along a pre-determined route mapped out by shadowy figures in the halls of power? Plans that took years to carry out, moments to enact, but would re-shape the geopolitical landscape forever.

Professor A. K. Dewdney is Professor Emeritus in the School of Computer Science at the University of Waterloo in Ontario, Canada. His area of expertise is computer science and with over 200 written works, Professor Dewdney is an internationally recognised expert in his field. For the past two years he has been researching his alternative scenario to the events of 9-11 and has published his research under the title Ghost Riders in the Sky: An Alternative 9-11 Scenario. Prof. Dewdney spoke with Byron Bay, Bay FM's Param Berg by phone. (**CD only)

1 Sep 030504 Peter Kornbluh - The Other September 11: Chile, 1973

September 11 is now engraved on the consciousness of Americans. Yet for the South American country of Chile, the date has a different and much more tragic significance. It was on that day in 1973 that the democratically-elected government of Salvador Allende was overthrown in a CIA-backed military coup. Augusto Pinochet seized power. In the ensuing years tens of thousands of Chileans were killed, jailed, tortured and driven into exile. The US role, under Nixon and his National Security Advisor Kissinger, in first destabilising and then overthrowing the Allende government was decisive. It will rank among the most grotesque interventions ever undertaken by the US. A few years after the coup, Nobel Peace Prize-winner Kissinger visited Chile. He told General Pinochet, "In the United States, as you know, we are sympathetic with what you are trying to do here."

Peter Kornbluh is senior analyst with the National Security Archive in Washington DC. He is the author of The Pinochet File.

25 Aug 031005** Doug Rokke - Silent Killer: The Hidden Legacy of Depleted Uranium

For the last fifty years we have been told that the nuclear energy industry is clean, safe and reliable. However, any truth in those claims is soon dispelled when we find out that one of the most deadly by-products of the nuclear industry is not to be found at the nuclear plants. This by-product is given the misnomer of 'depleted uranium' or DU as it's usually called, and constitutes over 99% of the waste material of the nuclear industry. Given the fact that almost a million metric tonnes of this material is lying around in nuclear storage facilities in the US, and the fact that the US military industrial complex produces some of the most deadly weapons on earth, it should be of no surprise that the two would soon meet up in the most unholy of alliances.

Doug Rokke's specialty is emergency rescue in biological and nuclear warfare. In 1991 he was recalled to active duty in the aftermath of the first Gulf War and he went on to become the head of the US government's depleted uranium project. Knowing full well the dangers of DU, by the late 1990's Doug could no longer stay within a system that would not ban its use, even though the adverse medical effects were well known to those giving the orders for its use. Doug spoke out against his employer, the US government, and has borne the consequences ever since. He spoke to Alternative Radio's Shane Elson by phone just prior to his first public lecture in Melbourne. (**CD only)

11/18 Aug 990301 / 990302 David Wilson - Return to the Nuclear Crossroads: Protest and Resistance at Rocky Flats (Pts. 1 and 2)

This special two-part program produced by David Wilson received the NFCB's Golden Reel Award for 1998's best documentary. It explores the history of protest at Rocky Flats nuclear weapons production facility from the early 1970s through the present, using rare archival tape and recent interviews to relate stories and music of many of the nation's leading anti-nuclear activists: Daniel Ellsberg, Helen Caldicott, Bonnie Raitt, Jackson Browne and Allen Ginsberg, who read his famous "Plutonian Ode" while blockading the plant in 1978. This compelling program will put you back on the railroad tracks of resistance at Rocky Flats while bringing you up to date on the nuclear disarmament movement.

David Barrett Wilson fell in love with public radio while studying physics and mathematics at Oxford University on a Rhodes Scholarship. David started selling radio stories nationally in 1996, focusing primarily on nuclear issues. In 1999, he received a Golden Reel from the National Federation of Community Broadcasters for his two part documentary, Return to the Nuclear Crossroads, a history of protest at the Rocky Flats nuclear weapons plant.

4 Aug 971004 Helen Caldicott - Technology, Spirituality and the Future of the Planet

The planet is not in good shape. As a 1995 Worldwatch Institute report states: "Evidence that the world is on an economic path that is environmentally unsustainable can be seen in shrinking fish catches, falling water tables, declining bird populations, record heat waves and dwindling grain stocks, just to name a few." In various ways, nature's limits are beginning to impose themselves on the human agenda, initially at the local level, but also on a global scale. The steady depletion of resources and the pollution of air and water have reached the point in many countries where the economic effects include the loss of production and jobs. In the US, the home of ever-larger shopping malls and shopping channels, frenzied consumer patterns continue unabated. Right-wing politicians and their corporate allies seek to reverse hard-won environmental protection laws.

Helen Caldicott, an Australian-born paediatrician, is a world-renowned environmental activist. She was the founding president of Physicians for Social Responsibility, an organisation which was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. She is the author of Nuclear Madness, Missile Envy and If You Love This Planet. Her autobiography is titled, A Desperate Passion.

28 Jul NA** Scott Ritter - International Press Conference on WMDs

On the 9th July 2003 Scott Ritter was the guest of an international press conference hosted by the Traprock Peace Centre and moderated by Sunny Miller. The participating journalists were:

Bob Paquette, WFCR public radio new director and Diane Broncaccio of the Greenfield Recorder.

Kimiko Aoki, Japanese Public Broadcasting;

Andrew Stelzer, KBOO, Portland, OR;

Adrian Glamorgan, a writer in Australia;

Mike Zmolek, http://www.endthewar.org in D.C.;

Michael Rivaro, http://www.WhatReallyHappened.org in Hawaii; with a question forwarded by Judith Monachina, The Advocate, Lenox and North Adams, MA.

Please note this program is not available for sale or multiple replays. Please visit the Traprock Peace Centre at www.traprockpeace.org for more information on how to obtain copies of this program. (**CD only)

21 Jul 031002 Arundhati Roy - Imperial Democracy

Hey! Step right up. Want some democracy? We got a great new brand right here on the shelf ready to go. Seal-wrapped straight from the factory. And we'll get it to you through the barrel of a gun. Shipping and handling is on us. US imperialism, like its predecessors, is based on the moral right to rule. In a newly packaged version of manifest destiny and white man's burden, America is delivering democracy to the benighted and bedraggled masses. The empire is rooted in the near-theological conviction that American values, whatever that might be, are good for the world. In fact, the Bush administration has declared, with a hubris that would make Roman emperors blush, that its vision for the rest of the planet is the only sustainable model. Emanating from Washington is a series of diktats telling other countries: Follow orders or else.

Arundhati Roy is the celebrated author of The God of Small Things, winner of the prestigious Booker Prize. Her latest book is War Talk. The New York Times calls her, "India's most impassioned critic of globalisation and American influence. She is the winner of the 2002 Lannan Award for Cultural Freedom. She spoke in May at Riverside Church in New York before an overflow crowd of 3,000.

14 Jul 031004** Fernando de Araujo - Reflections on East Timor 1 Year After Independence: An Opposition Leaders Perspective

In May 2002 after 500 years of colonial rule and almost 25 years of armed struggle, East Timor regained its independence. In the lead up to the declaration of independence, free elections were held in August of 2001. During the lead up to those elections various options were put forward as to how this new nation could be structured politically. As the first Prime Minister, Xanana Gusmao, began the task of nation building he reminded his people that both he and they will have to learn the ropes of democracy as they go. But the transition to independence has not yet transformed the lives of ordinary East Timorese. Soaring inflation, lack of employment and unregulated markets along with pressure from the huge oil and gas multinationals has not seen the fruits of democracy flow on to the people it was meant to benefit.

In 2001 Fernando de Araujo was elected the president of the Partido Democratico and in August of that year the party ran second in the election of the Constituent Assembly. During the Second Transitional Administration he became a Cabinet Member as Vice-Minister for Foreign Affairs and he currently serves as a member of Parliament and is leader of the Opposition Coalition Platform made up of representatives of eight political parties. Fernando de Araujo spoke at an event held in Melbourne on May 30th 2003 that was jointly organised by the Melbourne Institute of Asian Languages and Societies, the Asialink Centre and the East Timorese Students Association. (**CD only)

7 Jul 031001** Marcus Einfeld - The New World Order: The Human Dimension

Some commentators argue that during that 2001 Federal Election, something about Australian politics was fundamentally changed forever. In the post war years, Australia's image-makers cultivated the impression that Australia was a warm, welcoming nation whose open mindedness and egalitarian attitude made it a jewel in the South Seas. Migrants from all countries and cultures were welcomed in order the build the nation and relieve the burden from the sheep's back. The new industrialism ushered in the age of multiculturalism and ethnic diversity. Tolerance, acceptance and inclusion replaced the dark days of the white Australia policy. However, in the lead-up to the 2001 Federal election the spectre of Hansonism raised its head and was appropriated by the conservative parties as they ushered in a new social order in their quest for electoral victory. While no children were thrown overboard, it seems human rights, ethics and political honesty were jettisoned in the rush to regain office.

Justice Marcus Einfeld was the Foundation President of the Australian Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission in 1986. He has served as a Supreme Court and Federal Court Judge. He is currently UNICEF's Ambassador for Children and Auscare's Ambassador for Refugees. In 2002 he was elevated to the position of Peace Laureate by the United Nations. Justice Einfeld spoke at the inaugural lecture of the Gippsland Ethnic Communities Council held at Club Astoria in Morwell in May 2003. (**CD only)

30 Jun 030902 Kathy Kelly and Noam Chomsky - Iraq: The Human Cost of US Imperial Ambition

The National Security Strategy of the Untied States, issued in September 2002 frankly states, "The events of September 11th 2001 fundamentally change the context for relations between the US and other main centers of power and open vast new opportunities". What are the opportunities for the people of Iraq. The US led invasion and occupation for starters. Who's next? Iran and North Korea may already be in the sights. David Barsamian interviewed Kathy Kelly while she was in Bagdhad a week before the US attacks. Kelly is with Voices in the Wilderness, a joint US, UK human rights organisation working in Iraq. She has been nominated twice for the Nobel Peace Prize.

Barsamian then interviewed Noam Chomsky a few days after the first strike on Bagdhad. Chomsky an MIT professor is internationally renowned for his scholarship and activism on media issues, human rights and social justice. His books include Power and Terror and Mid East Illusions.

23 Jun 030805 Adrienne Anderson - Planetary Casualties: The Hidden Costs of War

Direct human casualties, especially American and financial costs of wars are openly discussed in the media. Yet the war on the environment is rarely addressed. Superfund sludge leaks into our food and water supplies. Uranium mining devastates reservations. Bombing ranges litter the US and its overseas territories. It is easier to gain support for military intervention if the public believes the effects are contained in a war zone halfway around the world.

Adrienne Anderson is professor of Environmental and Ethnic Studies at the University of Colorado at Boulder. She served as the Western Director of the National Toxics Campaign, a network of community groups. In 1997 Anderson filed a federal whistleblower case on a plan to mix plutonium waste with sewer sludge, process it into fertiliser and then use it on American farms. She works with farmers and unions to stop such dangerous practices from taking place around the country today.

16 Jun 030804 Gilbert Achcar - The Clash of Barbarisms: The New World Disorder

Zbigniew Brzezinski, Carter's national Security Adviser and frequent talk show guest, contends that the main task facing the managers of American empire is "to prevent collusion and maintain dependence among the vassals, keep tributaries pliant and protected, and to keep the barbarians from coming together." Pax Americana, America uber alles is the order of the day. The Bush doctrine of first strike combined with genuine terrorist threats may be the formula for a clash of barbarisms. Far from cancelling each other out, they reinforce each other in a spiral of continual escalation.

Gilbert Achcar (Zheel-bear' Ahsh'-car) is from Lebanon. He is currently based in France where he teaches politics and international relations at the University of Paris. He is a contributor to le Monde Diplomatique and the author of several books on contemporary politics. His most recent book is The Clash of Barbarisms: September 11 and the Making of the New World Disorder.

9 Jun 030803 As'ad AbuKhalil - Today Iraq, Tomorrow...?

A Pax Americana is emerging in the Middle East. Today the US stands astride Iraq. The Red Sea, the Persian Gulf and the Mediterranean are virtually US lakes guarded over by the largest naval armadas in the world. American planes command the skies. The Middle East is dotted with and surrounded by US military bases. Iraq, a country of only 24 million people, and which was devastated by years of sanctions and constant bombing was relatively easy pickings for the global hegemon. Who will be next? What will happen in Iraq? There are already clear indications that not all Iraqis welcome US presence in their ancient land.

As'ad AbuKhalil, a native of Lebanon, is a leading expert on the Middle East. He received his B. A. and M. A. from the prestigious American University of Beirut, and his Ph.D. from Georgetown University. He teaches at California State University at Stanislaus. He is the author of Bin Laden, Islam and America's New War on Terrorism. His forthcoming book will focus of the US / Saudi Arabia connection.

2 Jun 030704 Rania Masri - Iraq War and Occupation: Consequences for the Middle East

The US invasion and occupation of Iraq will have a profound impact on all Middle Eastern countries. Bush wants to install democracy in Iraq. It's a new version of the old domino theory, that democracy will somehow replicate itself among the sheiks, amirs, and despots of the region. The introduction of a huge US military presence in Iraq will further destabilise an already volatile landscape.

Rania Masri is a human rights advocate and environmental scientist. She is the coordinator of the Iraq Action Coalition and served as the Arab Women's Solidarity Association's representative to the United Nations. She is currently the director of the Southern Peace Research and Education Center at the Institute for Southern Studies in Durham, North Carolina. A dynamic speaker, she is in great demand all over the country.

26 May 030801 Noam Chomsky - Collateral Language: War and Propaganda

In an interview with AR's David Barsamian, noted linguist and political analyst, Noam Chomsky, examines the use of language during wartime. Reports in the corporate media reveal another victim of the invasion of Iraq: language. The use of words is a powerful tool in shaping public opinion. In military briefings repeated by the media, we have 'collateral damage' instead of civilian deaths. There was no assassination attempt on Saddam Hussein, the military took advantage of a "leadership target of opportunity." A 'coalition of the willing' is a coalition of the bribed and coerced. It all makes the bloody reality of war a more palatable sell to the American public.

Noam Chomsky, MIT professor, in addition to being a pioneer in linguistics, is internationally renowned for his scholarship and activism on media issues, human rights and social justice. The Guardian calls him, "One of the radical heroes of our age." His books include Propaganda and the Public Mind and 9-11. He is in such demand as a speaker that he is literally booked years in advance.

19 May 030703 Joseph Stiglitz - Globalisation and Its Discontents

Globalisation is not what its proponents said it would be. In many countries it has failed miserably, devastating economies, communities and individual lives. Perhaps no where has its failure been more apparent than in Argentina. Few countries embraced the nostrums of World Bank and IMF experts with more fervour and enthusiasm than Argentina. It was called the poster boy of the new economic order. Argentina was once one of the most prosperous countries in the world. It has huge natural resources and a highly trained and educated work force. Today its economy is in a shambles. An astounding 50% of its population is in poverty. Few countries have experienced such a dramatic economic collapse.

Joseph Stiglitz, professor at Columbia University, is the recipient of the Nobel Prize in economics. He was chair of the Council of Economic Advisers under Clinton. He also served as senior vice-president and chief economist of the World Bank. He is the author of Globalisation and Its Discontents.

12 May 030702 Howard Zinn - War on Iraq: A Dissenting View

Respected historian Howard Zinn joins AR's David Barsamian in conversation for this live feed. Zinn's extensive historical and current perspectives combine to provide critical insight on the situation in Iraq and the world. His breadth of knowledge and engaging style make this a program not to be missed.

Howard Zinn, professor emeritus of history at Boston University, is perhaps this country's premier radical historian. His masterpiece, A People's History of the United States, continues to sell in huge numbers. Among the many honours he has received are the Eugene Debs Award and the Upton Sinclair Award. His play Marx in Soho is being widely performed. He is also the author of Failure to Quit and The Future of History.

5 May 030604 Amy Goodman - Independent Media in a Time of War

Millions of people are taking to the streets around the world to say no to war. Half a million recently protested in New York City alone. But who are these people? Debate in the mainstream media often reduces them to Saddam-lovers, anti-American extremists and terrorist-sympathisers. Yet if you actually go out into the streets you see ragin' grannies, gospel singers, punk rock kids, businessmen, students, veterans, radical fairies, families with kids, and of course, hippies and anarchists. While condemning Saddam, they also reject the mentality that "you're either with us or you're with the terrorists." They are rising up and saying no to this war, not in our name. These are the people which independent media gives a voice.

Amy Goodman is the award-winning host of Democracy Now, the daily syndicated radio program. Her reporting on East Timor and Nigeria has earned her top awards. Along with Allan Nairn, she experienced a massacre of innocent civilians in East Timor. She has earned a reputation for asking hard questions of people in power. President Clinton has called her "hostile, combative and disrespectful."

28 Apr 030603 Katha Pollit, Berkowitz, Rashid Khalidi and Raymond Tanter - Attack Iraq: A Debate

Thomas Jefferson held that a "little rebellion" is the "medicine necessary for the sound health of government." Fast-forward a couple of hundred years and we have George Bush dismissing massive worldwide demonstrations against the impending attack of Iraq as irrelevant. Debate in the mainstream media avoids substantive content. It is mainly limited to discussions of when and how to strike or fear mongering through depictions of fabricated scenarios of terrorist attack. Debate is crucial for a robust and vibrant democracy. This program features Peter Berkowitz, Rashid Khalidi, Katha Pollitt and Raymond Tanter expressing various points of view on the impending attack on Iraq. Shirley Jahad moderates.

Katha Pollitt writes for The Nation, her analysis of politics, gender and pop culture appearing in the Subject to Debate column. Her books include Subject to Debate: Sense and Dissent, Women, Politics, and Culture.

Peter Berkowitz is an essayist and contributing editor at The New Republic and also writes for The Weekly Standard. He teaches law at George Mason University and is a fellow at the Hoover Institution. He is the author of Rediscovering Liberalism: A Collection of Essays.

Rashid Khalidi is a University of Chicago professor and director of the Center for International Studies at the University of Chicago. His publications include The Origins of Arab Nationalism and Palestinian Identity: The Construction of Modern National Consciousness.

Raymond Tanter is professor of international security and ballistic missile defence at the University of Michigan. He served under Ronald Reagan in the National Security Council. His books include Rogue Regimes, Terrorism and Proliferation, and Rational Rogues: Saddam, Osama, and Suicide Bombers.

21 Apr 030602 Tariq Ali - Imperialism Then and Now

Joseph Schumpeter in a 1919 essay entitled "The Sociology of Imperialisms," wrote, "There was no corner of the world where some interest was not alleged to be in danger or under actual attack. If the interests were not Roman, they were of Rome's allies, and if Rome had no allies, then allies would be invented. When it was utterly impossible to contrive such an interest-why, then it was the national honour that was insulted. The fight was always invested with an aura of legality. Rome was always being attacked by evil-minded neighbours. The whole world was pervaded by a host of enemies, and it was manifestly Rome's duty to guard against their indubitably aggressive designs." Just substitute United States for Rome today and see if there is some resonance and echo.

Tariq (Tah-rick) Ali, born in Lahore, Pakistan is an internationally renowned writer. He is based in London where he is an editor of New Left Review. A prolific writer, he's the author of more than a dozen books on world history and politics. In his spare time he is a filmmaker and novelist. His books include the worldwide bestsellers The Clash of Fundamentalisms: Crusades, Jihads and Modernity, The Clash of Fundamentalisms and Bush in Babylon.

14 Apr 030601 Noam Chomsky - US Grand Strategy: Global Rule by Force

The New Imperial World Order is officially under way. The National Security Strategy document lays it all out. Bush has told the world, It's our way or the highway. The US reserves the right to attack anyone at any time. Like the empires of old, the US clothes its aggressive intentions in the name of peace. America is innocent and a victim. But, "If war is forced upon us" as Bush said in his State of the Union speech, then America will fight. Despite high levels of pro-war propaganda, there is a rising tide of resistance to US hegemony. "Protests in the US and elsewhere are at levels that have no historical precedent," says Noam Chomsky. Noam Chomsky, MIT professor, in addition to being a pioneer in linguistics, is internationally renowned for his scholarship and activism on media issues, human rights and social justice. The Guardian calls him, "One of the radical heroes of our age." His books include Propaganda and the Public Mind and 9-11. He is in such demand as a speaker that he is literally booked years in advance. He drew 20,000, filling a stadium at the World Social Forum in Porto Alegre, Brazil. This program features his presentation in its entirety.

7 Apr 030403 Martin Luther King - Beyond Vietnam

Every year, almost like clockwork Martin Luther King's "I Have a Dream" speech gets airplay. The charismatic orator is frozen on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial in August 1963. No doubt it was a great presentation, deeply moving and full of dazzling poetry and inspiring images. But it was not his most important speech, nor was it his most courageous one. That was to come on April 4, 1967 in Riverside Church in New York. There King demonstrated his political maturity and understanding of how the system works. He moved beyond a simple race analysis to include class and foreign policy issues. He forcefully denounced the war in Vietnam. He called the US "the greatest purveyor of violence in the world" and he deplored the "giant triplets of racism extreme materialism and militarism." Exactly one year later King was assassinated in Memphis.

Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr, Nobel Peace Prizewinner, is one of the 20th century's most enduring figures. He was born on January 15, 1929 in Atlanta. He was an early convert to civil disobedience and non-violence. He said, "Christ gave us the goals and Mahatma Gandhi the tactics." He rose to national prominence in 1955 during the epic 382-day Montgomery bus boycott. He went on to spearhead a movement which effectively ended juridical apartheid in the US.

31 Mar 030301** Mustapha Barghouti - Palestine: What Future for her People

Created in a coup that continues to reverberate around the world, the Jewish state of Israel has persistently thumbed its collective nose at concerns of the illegal occupation of Palestinian territory. Little is spoken of the coup that the then Israeli leadership undertook, when on May 14th 1948, just a few hours prior to the formal British mandate ending, they ceased control of Jerusalem and proclaimed the sovereign state of Israel and in the process illegally annexed all Palestinian land. While little is spoken of this coup, perhaps even less is spoken of the broken promises, ignored international agreements and the support of most Western nations for the illegal state of Israel. What is continually shouted from the roof tops, as it were, by the Israeli government is the supposed threat to Israel by so called 'terrorists'. In the same breath the Israeli leadership attempts to defend the brutal murder of innocent men, women and children by both illegal settlers and the occupying Israeli military forces. When we listen to the voices of the spokespeople we find that those with American and European accents are speaking from the Israeli side. The accents of the Palestinian spokespeople, however, reveals the truth of whose side the so called 'free world' is on.

Dr. Mustapha Barghouti is an activist and grass roots organiser within the Palestinian community and is head of the Palestinian Medical Relief Services. Dr. Barghouti has been jailed and tortured by the Israeli army and secret police on numerous occasions. In one instance he was arrested in front of the world's media as he was leaving a press conference as journalists were intimidated and threatened by the Israeli army and secret police. In short, Dr. Barghouti is a man who has seen, from the inside, the terror inflicted on his people by the occupying forces and sanctioned by the Australian, British and US governments. Dr. Barghouti is a general practitioner who works as best he can within the confines of the occupied territories. He is also spokesperson for the Palestinian National Initiative and is that organisations Secretary General. Dr. Barghouti spoke at Sydney's Trades Hall at an event organised by the Palestinian Human Rights Campaign in September 2002. (**CD only)

24 Mar 030504 Peter Kornbluh - The Other September 11: Chile, 1973

September 11 is now engraved on the consciousness of Americans. Yet for the South American country of Chile, the date has a different and much more tragic significance. It was on that day in 1973 that the democratically-elected government of Salvador Allende was overthrown in a CIA-backed military coup. Augusto Pinochet seized power. In the ensuing years tens of thousands of Chileans were killed, jailed, tortured and driven into exile. The US role, under Nixon and his National Security Advisor Kissinger, in first destabilising and then overthrowing the Allende government was decisive. It will rank among the most grotesque interventions ever undertaken by the US. A few years after the coup, Nobel Peace Prize-winner Kissinger visited Chile. He told General Pinochet, "In the United States, as you know, we are sympathetic with what you are trying to do here."

Peter Kornbluh is senior analyst with the National Security Archive in Washington DC. He is the author of The Pinochet File.

17 Mar 030404 Stephen Zunes - The Case Against War With Iraq

Addressing troops at Ft. Hood, Texas, President Bush warned, "The Iraqi regime is a grave threat to the United States." The drums of war are beating loudly for an attack on Iraq. The reserves have been called up. Carrier battle groups are in place. The US is anticipating an 18-month occupation that will involve "a heavy American military presence and a quick takeover of Iraqi oil fields." Beyond the rhetoric and gunship diplomacy, Bush has not made the case that a major invasion of Iraq is necessary. Historian and longtime peace activist Howard Zinn says, "A war against Iraq has no logical connection to the tragic events of 9/11. We have a right to wonder if the motive for war is not stopping terrorism but expanding US power and controlling Mideast oil."

Stephen Zunes is a specialist on the Middle East. His articles appear in leading journals and magazines. He teaches at the University of San Francisco and is director of its Peace and Justice Studies Program. He also chairs the Middle East Task Force for the interfaith Fellowship of Reconciliation.

10 Mar 030501 As'ad AbuKhalil - Iraq: Refuting the Bush Allegations

Since his "axis of evil" speech, President Bush has had Iraq in his gunsights. It now seems that war is inevitable. The drumbeats are almost deafening. The most powerful nation in history will lead the charge against a country of 22 million people. Iraq, ancient Mesopotamia, one of the cradles of civilisation, the land between the Tigris and the Euphrates is about to undergo a devastating assault. Using the tragedy of September 11, Bush has been advocating an invasion of Iraq. "Time is running out," the leader of the Free World warns. What are the bases of the Bush case for attacking Iraq? Is he really concerned about the credibility of the United Nations or the human rights situation in Iraq? Millions of people around the world have been demonstrating against war. They question US assertions and motives.

As'ad AbuKhalil, a native of Lebanon, is a leading expert on the Middle East. He received his B. A. and M. A. from the prestigious American University of Beirut, and his Ph.D. from Georgetown University. He teaches at California State University at Stanislaus. He is the author of Bin Laden, Islam and America's New War on Terrorism.

3 Mar 030505** Shane Elson - Rally for Peace: The People's Perspective

On Valentines Day 2003, the first of what was to become the largest peace rallies in Australia was held in Melbourne's CBD. This rally and march drew an estimated 200,000 people from around the state. Family groups, elderly citizens, students, unionists, left right or center came out in numbers to say "No to War in Iraq". Assembling outside the Victorian State Library the crowd was so large it reached all the way to the destination of the march, Federation Square, even before the march began. So large was the crowd, in fact that it took almost 1 hours for the last people to make their way down the eight city blocks they had to walk. As millions around the world assembled and marched what were the issues on their minds? What was it that drew the largest crowds since the moratorium marches in the '60s and '70s into the streets of Australian cities and towns? How did our political leaders respond? Shane Elson, Australian producer of Alternative Radio, was on hand to capture the atmosphere and voices of the people who took part in Melbourne's rally.

Shane is an award winning journalist and producer who has covered many events of significance. He produces a local radio program on Gippsland Community Radio and works in the Journalism Department of Monash University. (**CD only)

24 Feb 30204 Bill and Kathy Christison - Terrorism and US Foreign Policy

To hear the US administration tell it, terrorism happens in a vacuum. 'They' attack 'us' because of our freedoms, because our way of life is just so much better. The explanation and remedy sound rather like an indulgent father, 'They hate us because we're beautiful. Now you just go shopping for your country and we'll bomb the evil doers.' Information not carried in the mainstream media paints a different picture. According to a State Department report issued before September 11th , US involvement overseas increases the chances of terrorist attacks. Could US foreign policy and the current administration's march toward full spectrum dominance have anything to do with the current resentment toward the US registered in other areas of the world?

Bill and Kathy Christison have a combined 43 years with the CIA; Bill as former director of its office of regional and political analysis and Kathy as a political analyst specialising in the Middle East and Southeast Asia. Kathy has written two books on Palestinian, Political Attitudes Within the US and US Foreign Policy Toward Palestine.

17 Feb 030203 Sut Jhally - Media Coverage of the Middle East

The Israeli-Palestinian conflict is drenched in distortion, myths and half-truths. Basic facts about UN resolutions, the Oslo peace process and what happened at Camp David are barely known. The media have been instrumental to the Israelis in making their side of the conflict known to Americans. Israel, a US ally, is far and away the largest recipient of American aid. Ariel Sharon says his country is the "US bridgehead in the Middle East." For the Palestinians, finding a receptive audience that does not prejudge them is difficult. They are the threatening, dark Other, speaking a strange language and practicing an alien religion. Images of angry and swarthy men wearing kaffiyehs and brandishing weapons are the staple of network broadcasts. Outside the US, in Canada, Europe, Asia and even in Israel itself, the media picture is wider and there is a greater range of information.

Sut Jhally, professor of communications at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst, is a prominent media critic. He is the recipient of the "Distinguished Teacher Award". An award-winning film producer, he is the founder and Executive Director of the Media Education Foundation in Northampton.

10 Feb 030202** Bob Burton: Secrets and Lies - The Anatomy of a PR Campaign

In our current political and social climate it might be easy to find cause for conspiracy theories on every page of our daily newspapers and in every news bulletin. Whether it's the war on terrorism, bank fees or that new corporate development just down the road, the fact is the spin doctors are probably the ones putting together the very words we read and hear each day. While it is true that most of the work undertaken by public relations firms is little more than froth and bubble at product launches or the opening of new buildings or even in promoting the local school fair, the fact is that when the truth would upset the status quo, the spin doctors move onto centre stage and lies, facts and truth become blurred in the battle for the public mind.

Bob Burton is a freelance journalist and long time public relations observer. Bob has worked with many grass roots groups including the Wilderness Society and the Australian Conservation Foundation. In 1999 he co-write, with New Zealand author Nicky Hager, Secrets and Lies: The Anatomy of an Anti-Environmental PR Campaign. Bob Burton is a regular contributor to PR Watch magazine and is the editor of Mining Monitor, a journal that keeps a watching brief on the exploitation of our natural environment by multinational mining corporations. In 2000 Bob was named Wild magazine's "Environmentalist of the Year". (**CD only)

3 Feb 030201 Arundhati Roy - Globalisation and Terrorism

Since 9/11 most of the media have studiously avoided talking about the origins of terrorism. It just happens like the well-known four-letter word. The corporate networks and their overpaid talking heads mimic the Bush line: 'They, the evildoers hate us'. Why? "Because of our values and freedom." This simple formula is repeated ad nauseam even while most of the world's media point to ample evidence that terrorism has deep roots. Since US-led corporate Globalisation accelerated in the 1990s the poor have gotten poorer and the rich richer. Disparities among and inside of countries have grown sharply. The train of the New World Order has left many passengers behind at the station. From Argentina and Brazil to Nigeria and India, the servant's are stirring. They are unhappy with the master's rules. Perhaps the definition of terrorism should include the economic variety.

Arundhati Roy is the celebrated author of The God of Small Things, winner of the prestigious Booker Prize. The book has sold 6 million copies and has been translated into 40 languages. Her other books include Power Politics. The New York Times calls her, "India's most impassioned critic of globalisation and American influence." She is the winner of the 2002 Lannan Award for Cultural Freedom. Legendary historian Howard Zinn introduces Roy.

27 Jan 021204 John Pilger - Imperialism, War and Journalism

"The first causality when war comes is truth," warned Senator Hiram Johnson in 1917. Those words resonate strongly today. When the country goes to war, the corporate media are virtually cheerleaders. Journalists extol the noble virtues and intentions of US state power. There's a time-honoured system of you scratch my back, I'll scratch yours. If you want that important interview with a White House official or if you want to be called upon at a press conference you'd better be certain that you've established yourself as obedient and not likely to ask the wrong questions. Play the game and you'll make yourself rich and famous. Stray from the pack and you'll get, as Marlon Brando says in On the Waterfront, "a one-way ticket to Palookaville."

John Pilger is a leading journalist and documentary filmmaker. He's twice won British journalism's highest award, that of Journalist of the Year. His books include New Rulers of the World. His documentaries are seen all over the world but rarely in the US including the film Palestine is Still the Issue.

20 Jan 021001 Kevin Phillips - Wealth and Democracy

The French have a theory that behind every great fortune lies a great crime. The recent corporate crime wave certainly lends credence to that idea. Corporations and the individuals who own them use their money and power to exert an inordinate influence on national politics, thus undermining democracy. Rather than government of, for and by the people we are becoming a plutocracy: government of, for and by the rich. The excesses of the wealthy have led to an arrogance of entitlement, which has led to the downfall of many great powers in the past. Will the United States be an exception?

Kevin Phillips has an interesting political pedigree. Firmly rooted in the Republican Party, he was chief political analyst for the 1968 Republican presidential campaign, which culminated in the victory of Richard Nixon. One year later he wrote the influential book, The Emerging Republican Majority. His politics have evolved over the ensuing decades as he has watched his party, the economy and the country capitulate to the whims of Wall Street. He is an NPR commentator and author of many books including The Politics of Rich and Poor and Wealth and Democracy.

13 Jan 021203 Robert Bowman - Weapons in Space: Taking the Offensive

A year and a half before the Sept. 11th attacks, the CIA testified before the Senate that the US is more likely to be attacked from non-missile delivery means than with missiles. Any attack would most likely come from a non-state entity. In other words, Bush's resurrected trillion dollar space-based anti-missile program, Star Wars, won't address America's real security concerns. What will Star Wars accomplish? While it may edge the US closer to the nefarious goal of full-spectrum dominance, it also sets the stage for a whole new arms race.

Robert Bowman, a 22-year Air Force veteran, directed all the Star Wars programs under Presidents Ford and Carter. With the support of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, he became the leading opponent of Reagan's version of the program. He is the Presiding Archbishop of the United Catholic Church and is the President of the Institute for Space and Security Studies that publishes Space and Security News.

6 Jan 020903 / 020904 Howard Zinn - A People's History of the United States (Pt. 2)

Howard Zinn, professor emeritus at Boston University, is one of this country's most renowned and influential historians. He has helped spark a movement to reexamine what we call history. His classic book, A People's History of the US reverses traditional perspectives and presents history from the point of view of those who have been largely omitted from traditional texts. Zinn brilliantly reshuffles heroes and villains. The New York Times said the book should be "required reading". And this two-part program should be required listening.

Howard Zinn, professor emeritus at Boston University, is perhaps this country's premier radical historian. He grew up in the slums of Brooklyn. As a teenager, he worked in a shipyard. During World War II, he saw combat duty as an air force bombardier. After the war, he went to Columbia University on the GI Bill. He was an active figure in the civil rights and anti-Vietnam War movements. His masterpiece, A People's History of the US continues to sell in huge numbers. He has written several plays including the widely acclaimed Marx in Soho.

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